Business - Office
ACD - Automatic Call Distribution
An automated system for answering, queuing and distributing incoming calls to a number of agents. Popular in
call centres, ACD systems also provide statistics, such as the number of calls waiting, average length of call
queue etc, which can be incorporated into historical reports or displayed in real time on electronic wallboards
ADSL - Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line
A broadband technology that delivers high data transfer speeds over existing phone lines
ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode
A transmission and switching technique capable of supporting voice, video and data (Multimedia) communications
It is unique in that each piece of information is addressed and is of the same length. This allows very high-speed
An automated answering system that uses prompts to direct callers to the correct department or extension - e.g.
"For Support press 1"
A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network. The term is relative
since a backbone in a small network will probably be much smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large
How much you can send through a connection. Usually measured in bits per second. A full page of English text is
roughly 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move about 57,000 bits per second whereas full-motion, full screen video
would require some 10,000,000 bits per second, depending on compression.
Basic Rate ISDN2 provides one D channel and two B channels, each of which is equivalent to a normal telephone
line. These can provide up to two simultaneous calls and, as each channel can transmit data at speeds of 64Kbps,
this represents a data transfer rate of 128Kbps
A feature of telephone systems, call forwarding allows incoming calls to be diverted automatically to a
different number, for example a mobile phone or a home office.
CEM - Customer Experience Management
Software solutions that improve the effectiveness and performance of employees within customer service and
contact centre environments. Performance management and eLearning packages which identify individual learning needs
and offer immediate Elearning solutions to enhance the customer's experience.
CLI - Calling Line Identity
One of the key ISDN features, CLI displays the phone number of the caller on the answering phone's display. CLI
alpha tagging also shows the caller's name and company. CLI is the enabling feature of many computer telephony
A software programme that is used to contact and obtain data from a server software programme on another
computer, often across a vast distance. Each client programme is designed to work with one or more specific kinds
of server programme, and each server requires a specific kind of client. A web browser is a specific kind of
CRM - Customer Relationship Management
Generic term for applications designed to streamline interactions with customers. CRM software allows call
centre agents to access a customer's service history from the back-office customer account packages. Small
businesses are waking up to the advantages of CRM solutions that integrate with their PCs. The Internet, Email,
IVR, voice and interactive TV have sparked a seismic shift towards web-enabled call centres, opening up a new
dimension in offering good service.
By storing information about each customer, the database allows organizations to track an individual's buying
habits and thus target clients with appealing products and services. The key is to have fast access to the right
information on your customers that supports your relationship with them. A CRM system provides that information -
but they can be complex because information needs to be integrated from different channels.
CRM Jargon Buster
Operational CRM - Aims to boost service levels and please customers.
Analytical CRM - What goes on behind the scenes.
Segmentation - Assessing the value of each customer to discover which clients spend the most money.
Cross Selling - Persuading customers to spend more on services they didn't know they needed.
Up Selling - Persuading customers to spend more on services they didn't know they could afford.
Customer Focus - Not taking your eye of those prospects.
Front Office - Customer facing functions.
Back Office - Work carries out behind the front line.
Data Warehouse - A database where information is stored and updated that profiles customers.
CTI - Computer Telephony Integration
The term used to describe the linking of the telephone system with a computer or network. The classic CTI
application is "screen popping", which uses CLI to identify the caller and display his/her database records on the
screen before the call is answered. CTI also enables calls to be made directly from a contact management package by
simply clicking the call button. There are two types of CTI: first party CTI, a standalone solution that requires
each PC to be connected to a telephone, and third party CTI, a multiple terminal solution requiring a single link
between the telephone system and the network.
DDI - Direct Dial Inwards
A key ISDN feature is the ability to assign individual phone numbers (DDI Numbers) to extensions and
departments, enabling callers to dial them directly without having to go through the operator.
DECT - Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephony
DECT cordless handsets provide wireless communications within an office or company premises. The handsets can be
fully integrated with the company phone system, allowing users to make, take and transfer calls securely as they
move around the premises.
DPNSS - Digital Private Network Signaling System
A private networking standard developed by BT and other PBX suppliers which allows full feature access to be
provided between PBXs in private networks.
DSS - Direct Station Select
A button on a terminal that can be used to directly dial a person or extension associated with that button.
DTMF - Dual Tone Multi Frequency
Signaling which is the basis for the operation of pushbutton telephone sets. Dialed numbers are transmitted as
tones rather than electronic pulses. This is particularly useful for access to supplementary services (e.g.
voicemail and auto attendants).
A method used to secure data that is transferred over the Internet by scrambling it in such a way that only the
intended recipient of the message can read its contents.
A common method of networking computers in a LAN. There is more than one type of Ethernet (See LAN).
A name for ISDN as defined by the relevant European ETSI standards
An Intranet that is accessible to computers that are not physically part of a company's own private network, but
that is not accessible to the general public - for example, to allow vendors and business partners to access a
company web site.
A security system that prevents computers on a network from communicating directly with computers on another
network. Instead, all communication is routed through a proxy server, which determines whether a particular message
or file may pass to or from the host.
A hardware or software set up that translates between two dissimilar protocols, for example AOL has a gateway
that translates between its internal, proprietary eMail format and Internet eMail format. Another meaning is to
describe any mechanism for providing access to another system.
A wireless LAN protocol developed by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) akin to 802.11.
There are two types of Hiper LAN, both operating in the 5GHz band. Hiper LAN/1 provides data-rates up to 20 Mbps
and Hiper LAN/2 data rates up to 54 Mbps.
Any computer on a network that is a repository for services available to other computers. It is common to have
one host machine provide several services, such as SMTP (eMail) and HTTP (Web).
Abbreviation for Hypertext Markup Language, a language used for creating documents for the World Wide Web. HTML
uses special code that tells Web browsers how to display elements such as text and images in a document.
Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
An Internet service provider maintains a server that is directly connected to the Internet. You must connect
through a service provider unless you are directly connected to the Internet. Connecting to a service provider
entails calling the provider and setting up a PPP account
IP - Internet Protocol
The signaling standard used to transmit data across the Internet and LANs. IP uses packet switching techniques
to send data in small chunks (packets)
A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on
the public Internet, but which is only for internal use.
he use of IP signaling methods to send voice traffic across a data network. Voice signals are broken down into
packets and reassembled at the receiving end. This eliminates the need for separate voice and data networks by
converging all traffic on one network.
IP gateway - VoIP Gateway
A gateway for an existing telephone system, which converts normal circuit-switched telephony traffic into IP for
transmission over a data network, such as a private data network between two sites.
ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network
ISDN is a dial up digital public network for voice and data communications with charges based on line rental and
ISDN provides a number of advanced telephony services, such as CLI and DDI, which form the basis of todays
advanced telephony applications. It is available in two forms: Basic Rate ISDN2e (2 channels) and Primary Rate
ISDN30e (30 channels).
IVR - Interactive Voice Response
IVR systems automate routine transactions, such as requests for literature or information by using voice
recognition or pone keypad operations.
A programming language that is mostly used in Web pages, usually to add features that make the page more
combined with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), and later versions of HTML (4.0 and later) the result is often referred
to as DHTML (Dynamic HTML).
JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group
JPEG is most commonly mentioned as a file format for image files. JPEG format is preferred to the GIF format for
photographic images as opposed to line art or simple logo art.
A thousand bytes (Usually 1024 bytes)
LAN - Local Area Network
A computer network limited to the immediate area, usually the same building or floor of a building.
Using ISDN an organization can connect LANs at different locations into a WAN (Wide Area Network) on a dial up
basis, without the need for a permanent, expensive, leased data link.
The convergence of voice and data on a LAN, eliminating the need for separate voice and data networks within an
Lines such as a telephone line or fibre optic cable that is rented for exclusive 24/7 use from your location to
another location. The highest speed data connections require a leased line.
Any time you connect two or more computers together so that they can share resources, you have a computer
NIC - Network Information Centre
Generally, any office that handles information for a network. The most famous of these on the Internet was
InterNIC, which was where most new domain names were registered until that process was decentralized to a number of
private companies. Also means "Network Interface Card" which is the card in a computer into which you plug a
Open Source Software
Open Source Software is software for which the underlying programming is available to the users so that they may
read it, make changes to it, and build new versions of the software to incorporate those changes. There are many
types of Open Source Software, mainly differing in the licensing term under which (altered) copies of the source
code may (or must) be redistributed.
The method used to move data and voice around a network. In packet switching, all the data is broken up into
chunks - each chunk has the address of where it came from and where it is going. This enables chunks of data from
many different sources to co-mingle on the same lines and be sorted and directed along different routes by special
machines along the way. In this way many people can use the same lines at the same time.
Point of Presence
A Point of Presence usually means a city or location where a network can be connected to, often with dial up
Usually used as a marketing term to describe a web site that is or is intended to be the first place people see
when they are using the Web. Typically, a Portal site has a catalogue of web sites, a search engine or both. A
Portal site may also offer Email and other services to entice people to use that site as their main "point of
entry" to the web.
A third party CTI application, predictive dialing removes all dialing responsibilities from an agent. Once a
call has been completed the software automatically dials the next number on the agent's call list.
Primary Rate ISDN (ISDN30e) provides up to 30 'B' channels, giving users 30 lines that can be used for any
combination of voice, data and video.
PSTN - Public Switched Telephone Network
The regular, old fashioned telephone system - as if you didn't know!
QoS - Quality of Service
Used to provide acceptable voice quality across IP networks
The protocol for networking telecommunications systems from different manufacturers.
A special purpose computer or software package that handles the connection between two or more packet switched
networks. Routers spend all their time looking at the source and destination addresses of the packets passing
through them and deciding which route to send them on.
Device used to connect data terminals such as video conferencing units to ISDN lines.
A computer, or software package, that provides a specific kind of service to client software running on other
computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software or to the machine on which the software is running.
A single server machine can have several different server software packages running on it, thus providing many
different services to clients on the network.
SIP - Session Initiation Protocol
An Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard, SIP is an open, Internet genuine protocol for establishing
and maintaining multi-party, mixed media sessions over converged networks. SIP enables the creation and deployment
of feature rich services that go far beyond simple VoIP calls.
The term used to describe a software application that provides server based telephony. Performing similar
functions to a hardware PBX, Soft PBXs offer a range of PBX functions, voicemail and integration with other server
based applications such as Unified Messaging and contact management systems.
A structured cabling system comprises standards-compliant components, such s wall outlets and connections, and
the cable itself, which is likely to be Category 5e UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) copper cabling along the floor,
often leading to multimode fibre-optic cable in the backbone or vertical riser of the building.
Category 5 is currently installed in most buildings that have a structured cabling system.
Category 5e is heralded as the solution guaranteeing access to broadband technologies and is fast becoming the
cabling of choice.
Category 6 is today's premium UTP cabling and supports even more bandwidth and even faster speeds.
TAPI - Telephone Application Programme Interface
Developed by Microsoft, 1st and 3rd party TAPI are the standard interfaces for CTI applications.
Unified Messaging (UM) systems provide one centralized mailbox for all eMail, voice and fax messages. All
message types can be viewed, replied to, saved or deleted in the same Inbox using a familiar message management
system such as Microsoft Outlook or Lotus Notes.
UPS - Uninterrupted Power Supply
A UPS will protect your IT and comms when the power has failed or if there is a dip or temporary drop out, but
in most cases that's all its designed to do. Unless there are other protection devices fitted to the UPS then it
won't protect against surges or from damage that can be caused by harmonic distortion on the LV network.
The videoconferencing market essentially splits into three broad segments - endpoints, infrastructure and
installation - with further segmentation in the endpoint (personal, set-top and group systems) and the
infrastructure (i.e. H320, H323, gateways, gatekeepers) sectors. Increasingly, videoconferencing is being merged
into a broader market, called digital video communications, with major manufacturers now moving to supply video,
audio and data communications in integrated packages to companies and to move their offerings away form ISDN
systems towards IP networks.
VPN - Virtual Private Network
Usually refers to a network in which some of the parts are connected using the public Internet, but the voice
and data sent across the Internet is encrypted, so the entire network is "virtually" private. Organizations with
offices in more than one location can link phone systems in a VPN. Using a linked numbering plan, a staff member in
one location can dial a colleague at another office just by dialing their extension number.
Voicemail systems allow callers to leave voice messages in individual mailboxes. Messages can be retrieved
VoIP (Voice Over IP)
The transmission of voice traffic over a wide area network or the Internet using the IP signaling standard (See
WAN - Wide Area Network
Any Internet or network that covers an area larger than a single building or site.
An application such as Microsoft Internet Explorer that enables you to view web pages on the World Wide Web, on
another network or on your computer. A browser also enables you to jump from one web page to another by following
links and to download files from the Internet to your computer.
Wireless Local Area Network
The wireless extension to the wired LAN is a growing market. More organizations have people on the road that
need touchdown areas in the office. Wireless is the easiest way to facilitate this. There is also the roaming
factor where people need to roam within buildings and need access to central systems. The standard on which most
WLANs are currently based is 802.11b. It is a revision of 802.11 standard allowing data rates up to 11Mbps in the
2.4Ghz ISM band.
802.11b - The standard on which most WLAN's are currently based. It is a revision of 802.11 standard allowing
data rates up to 11 Mbps in the 2.4Ghz ISM Band.
802.11a - A revision of 802.11 that operates in the unlicensed 5 GHz band and allows transmission rates of 54
Mbps. 802.11a uses orthogonal frequency multiplexing as opposed to FHSS or DSSS. Higher data rates are available by
combining channels. Due to higher frequency, range is less than lower frequency systems and can increase the cost
of the overall solution because a greater number of access points may be required. 802.11a is not directly
compatible with 802.11b or 802.11g networks. Multi mode NICs will solve this problem.
802.11g - An extension to 802.11b, 802.11g will broaden 802.11b's data rates to 54 Mbps within the 2.4 GHz band
using OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) technology. An 802.11b radio card will interface directly
with an 802.11g access point (and vice versa) at 11 Mbps or lower depending on range. Range at 54 Mbps is less than
802.11b access points operating at 11 Mbps.
WEP - Wired Equivalent Privacy
A security protocol for WLANs. WEP was intended to provide the same level of security as that of a wired LAN.
However, it has been found that WEP is not as secure as once believed. WEP is used at the two lowest layers of the
OSI and it therefore does not offer end-to-end security.
Wi-Fi - Wireless Fidelity
Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliances (WECA) brand identity for the IEEE 802.11b standard; WECA
certification that ensures a products compatibility.
Wi-Fi5 - refers to WLAN products based upon the 802.11a specification operating in the 5Ghz radio frequency
band. Only products that have passed WECAA interoperability testing are allowed to display the Wi-Fi5 certification
Wireless Wide Area Network
Companies with more than one building on a campus or in close proximity in a city can use Wi-Fi technology - or
higher frequency, higher speed radio technologies - to build wireless "bridges" between sites.
XML - extensible Markup Language
A widely used system for defining data formats. XML provides a very rich system to define complex documents and
data structures such as invoices, molecular data, news feeds and so on. As long as a programmer has the XML
definition for a collection of data (often called a schema) then they can create a programme to reliably process
any data formatted according to those rules.
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